One of my team mate faced this issue few days back, After installing SharePoint 2010 when he tried to open central admin he got blank page.
We checked for all app pools and services but everything were fine, But after some googling we found solution that:
He forgotten to tick the Windows Authentication box when installing the IIS7 features. So:
Control Panel > Programs and Features > Turn Windows features on or off >Internet Information Services > World Wide Web Services > Security >tick ‘Windows Authentication’
After doing this our central admin was working as expected